Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation



Part 3 – Plan


Timeline

09 November – Create an account, select a topic, research topics, and find good websites
16 November – Work on and finish planning
23 November – Research on my chosen topic and start working on part 1
30 November – Work on and finish part 2
07 December – Work on part 1
14 December – Work on and finish part 1


Seven habits for high efficiency

  1. Be proactive – I will take responsibility for this project
  2. Begin with the end in mind – I will define my goal before I start working on this project
  3. Put first thing first – I will work on the plan first, before working on the main body
  4. Think win-win - I will try my best to work on this project and help my friends. I think everyone can be the winner if they are trying hard.
  5. Seek to understand, then to be understood - I will listen to people's comment and advices sincerely
  6. Synergize - I would work and discuss with my friends to learn and achieve more.
  7. Shapen the saw - I will renew myself regularly by getting new information and knowledge from research and learning.


Seven Principles for setting Goals

Desire - I will design a neat and perfect looking page useful to others with precise and interesting details, images and multimedia if needed.
Written - I will follow my plan and timeline to work on my project.
Plan to deal with resistance - Possible obstacles include - Computer and internet problems, lack of sufficient information and time management.
Deadline - I will follow my timeline and finish my project on time.
Planning - Useful resources include - library, IT students, teachers and internet.
Mental Picture - I want my site to be creative and interesting.
Persistence - I will work on this project during class time and at home if needed.


SMART Goals

Specific - Well defined. Clear to anyone that has a basic knowledge of the project.
Measurable - Know if the goal is obtainable and how far away completion is. Know when it has been achieved.
Agreed Upon - Agreement with all the stakeholders what the goals should be.
Realistic - Within the availability of resources, knowledge and time.
Time Based - Enough time to achieve the goal. Not too much time, which can affect project performance.



Part 1 - Information and bibliography


Description


"Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behavior." --quoted from Wikipedia
Motivation is essential to one's life as it is the basic reason which activates you to work and complete a task or a goal. Once you have set your goal towards one particular ideal, you sometimes need a massive amount of work and progress in order to reach your goal, and yet motivation is necessarily among the basic needs to minimize physical pain, stress and maximize the pleasure. Motivation may include specific needs such as a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal.

[Wikipedia. 30 November 2009. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation >. ]

Image:motivation.jpg
Image:motivation.jpg
graph 1.1

Graphic from //http://positivesharing.com//

Concepts


Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation

Motivation can be primarily categorized into two types: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is when you personally want to do or have the desire of doing something. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external or outside rewards. when somebody else tries to make or force you do something.

[P2pfoundation. 30 November 2009 < http://p2pfoundation.net/Intrinsic_vs._Extrinsic_Motivation >. ]

Intrinsic movitation


Intrinsic motivation drives a person to do things just for the fun of it, or because I believe it is a good or right thing to do.

Example

Most people's hobbies are intrinsically motivated. Notice the passion with which people collect little bits of china or build detailed model ships. Few people carry that amount of passion into their workplace.

Using it

If you can get someone to believe in an idea or align their values with what you want, then you have set very powerful motivation in place. Seek to make them feel good about what you want.

[Changing Minds. 23 November 2009 < http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/intrinsic_motivation.htm >.]
Factors that promote intrinsic motivation
"What enhances intrinsic motivation?” this is the list of factors that create and sustain intrinsic motivation:

  • Challenge – to accomplish new tasks you should be able to challenge yourself
  • Control - have choice over what you do
  • Cooperation - often work with and help others
  • Recognition - get meaningful, positive recognition for your work.
  • Happiness at work - People who like their job are much more likely to find intrinsic motivation.
  • Trust - When you trust the people you work with, intrinsic motivation is much easier.
  • Curiosity – when you are curious about your job, you can find it more exciting for you to work
  • Responsibility – you are responsible for your work and life, so you need to accomplish it


Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external or outside rewards. Money is the most obvious example. These rewards provide satisfication and pleasure more than the task itselfs.

Example

In sports, the crowd may cheer on the performer, and may motivate him or her to do well. Trophies are also extrinsic motivations. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity.

However, social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation:

Example

Children who expected to be rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition and to children who received no extrinsic reward.


Why Extrinsic Motivation Doesn't Work

From research, extrinsic motivation does not work as well as intrinsic motivation.
From Alfred Kohn:
"If a reward — money, awards, praise, or winning a contest — comes to be seen as the reason one is engaging in an activity, that activity will be viewed as less enjoyable in its own right."
[Studies Find Reward Often No Motivator. By Alfie Kohn. 30 November 2009 < http://naggum.no/motivation.html>. ]


"Extrinsic motivation has some serious drawbacks:
  • It’s not sustainable - As soon as you withdraw the punishment or reward, the motivation disappears.
  • You get diminishing returns - If the punishment or rewards stay at the same levels, motivation slowly drops off. To get the same motivation next time requires a bigger reward.
  • It hurts intrinsic motivation - Punishing or rewarding people for doing something removes their own innate desire to do it on their own. From now on you must punish/reward every time to get them to do it."

Positive and negative motivations


Apart from intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, there are positive and negative motivations.
Positive motivation is when you want to get something, or towards some goals.
Negative motivation is when you want to avoid something.
Referring back to graph 1.1, we can see that only positive intrinsic motivation always works well on people.



EVALUATION


Student (Self) Evaluation - At the end of the project, students must assess their own work and post results in the DISCUSSION section.
25% = Part 1 = Information and bibliography = 24
25% = Part 2 = Contributions and Comments = 25
25% = Part 3 = Planning = 25
25% = Layout, appearance and and design = 24
OVERALL MARK = 98